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How to manage strawberry growth period?

VIEWS: times Release Date:2020-09-14

How to manage strawberry growth period?


1. Strawberry's temperature requirements

The suitable temperature for the growth of the aboveground part of strawberry plants is 15-25 degrees, and the suitable temperature for photosynthesis is 20-25 degrees. The growth is poor below 10 degrees, and photosynthesis and growth above 30 degrees are inhibited. The above-ground plants begin to grow when the temperature reaches 5°C, suffer from freezing damage at -7°C, and freeze to death when the temperature is below -10°C. The most suitable temperature for root growth is 15 to 23 degrees. The flowering period is lower than 0 ℃ or higher than 40 ℃, which will affect the normal development of pollination and fertilization and seeds, resulting in the production of deformed fruits. Flower bud differentiation must be carried out between 5 and 17 ℃.


2. Strawberry's requirements for moisture (humidity)

Strawberry has a shallow root system, many and large leaves, and is sensitive to water. It likes humidity and is afraid of waterlogging. Different phenological periods have different requirements for water. During the germination and flowering period, the soil water content should not be less than 70% of the maximum water holding capacity, and the air humidity is required to be 40% to 60%. The fruit expansion period requires more than 80%, and the flower bud formation period should be maintained at about 60%. If the water accumulates for a long time, it will affect the root system and plant growth. In severe cases, the leaves will turn yellow, wither, fall off, and even cause plant death. Therefore, watering should be done less frequently.


3. Strawberry's requirements for light

Although strawberries are light-loving crops, they are more shade-tolerant. When the light is strong, the plants are short and sturdy fruits with high sugar content and strong fragrance. When the light is insufficient or the planting is too dense, the leaves are thin, the petiole and flower stalk are slender, the leaf color is light, the flower is small, the fruit is small, the taste is sour, and the maturity period is delayed. Different growth periods of strawberries have different requirements for light hours. The flowering and fruiting period and the beginning of the growth period usually require 12 to 15 hours of sunshine. The favorable sunshine hours for the flower bud differentiation period are only 12 hours, and the sunshine hours for strawberry to enter the dormant period are within 10 hours.


Fourth, strawberry requirements for soil

Strawberries are suitable for growing on sandy soils that are loose, fertile, air-permeable and water-permeable. The suitable PH value is between 5.5 and 6.5. Clay, saline-alkaline soil and swamps are not suitable for growing strawberries. Strawberries are suitable for growing in soil where the groundwater level is not higher than 80-100cm. Nitrogen and potassium are absorbed the most throughout life, followed by calcium and phosphorus. Strawberry is planted in autumn to the end of harvest. The absorption of nutrients by the plant varies from small to large. The most nutrient absorption period is at the end of flowering and fruiting. At this time, the plant absorbs a large amount of nutrients, laying the foundation for the development of stolons and seedlings.


5. The whole soil moisture before strawberry planting

Before planting strawberries, apply sufficient base fertilizer, 3,000 to 5,000 kilograms of fully decomposed organic fertilizer, 40 to 50 kilograms of superphosphate, and 50 kilograms of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium compound fertilizer per mu, and apply it half a month before planting. Spread the fertilizer evenly and thoroughly plow the garden soil 2 to 3 times to fully mix the soil and fertilizer, till the depth is 30cm, and then open the ditch for moisture management. Moisture bottom width 60~80cm, moisture surface width 50~60cm, height about 20cm


6. Temperature management of strawberry planting

Timely heat preservation is a key measure to promote cultivation. According to weather conditions, when the night temperature drops to 5~8℃, the shed is kept for heat preservation, and the temperature requirements for different growth periods are different. In the early stage of heat preservation, in order to prevent the plants from entering dormancy and dwarfing, and to promote the development of flower buds, higher temperatures should be given, 28-30℃ in the daytime, the highest not exceeding 35℃, 12-15℃ at night, and the lowest not lower than 8℃. Budding period: 25-28℃ during the day and 10℃ at night. The suitable temperature during the flowering period is 25-30°C during the day and 8-10°C at night. The temperature is too low and the anthers cannot be scattered and dried.


7. Application of Gibberellin in Strawberry Production

Gibberellin has the effects of inhibiting strawberry dwarfing, promoting the breaking of dormancy, early plant budding and flowering, and promoting the elongation of petiole fruit stems. Therefore, various cultivation methods must be treated with gibberellin. The promotion of cultivation in Kunming is mainly to break dormancy and prevent plant dwarfing. The treatment time is usually just after entering the cold weather and when the plants grow slowly, spray 5-10 mg/L gibberellin solution 5 ml per plant, usually once. If the effect is not obvious, spray a second time every 10 days. After spraying, keep the greenhouse temperature at 30°C for 2 hours. If the plant grows vigorously after heat preservation and the leaves are plump and bright green, gibberellin treatment is not required.


8. Humidity adjustment for strawberry planting

After heat preservation, the relative humidity in the shed will be very high, and the relative humidity can often reach 100% in the morning before the wind is released. Too high or low humidity will affect the growth of plants during flowering and induce various diseases. Therefore, dehumidification is an important task. Under normal circumstances, the air should be released at noon every day to dehumidify, but it should be noted that the temperature should not be lowered for dehumidification. Humidity requirements in different periods: 60-80% during budding, 30-50% during flowering, and 60-70% during fruit maturity.


9. Fertilizer and water management during strawberry growth

Watering: After heat preservation, the soil moisture will evaporate faster. Despite the mulching film and greenhouse film, the soil is prone to lack of water. Strawberry is a plant that loves water and is afraid of waterlogging. Therefore, it should be watered at intervals to make the soil sufficient. The principle of watering is "wet but not waterlogged, and dry but not drought." To determine whether it is time to water, observe the leaf surface water in the morning. If there are water droplets on the edge of the leaf surface, water spitting occurs, which can be considered sufficient. On the contrary, it means that water is lacking and needs to be watered in time. Top dressing: In addition to applying foot fertilizer, top dressing can be carried out before mulching, budding, fruit swelling or harvesting season according to plant growth. The interval between top dressing is 20 days in the early growth period and 1 month in the late growth period. Apply 10-15 kilograms of NPK compound fertilizer or 5 kilograms of urea plus 10 kilograms of diammonium phosphate per mu each time, and water in time after topdressing. The best method for top dressing is to mix it with 0.2% liquid fertilizer and irrigate it along the hole made by the moisture surface, and water 400-500 ml per plant. In addition, spraying an equal volume of 0.2% calcium sulfate and 0.05% manganese sulfate mixture 2 to 3 times during the initial and full blooming stage of strawberry can significantly improve the fruit setting rate and the large fruit rate. Extra-root topdressing can be sprayed with 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate once every 7 to 10 days.


10. Plant growth management of strawberry

The stolons, old leaves, and diseased leaves must be removed in time during the entire growth period of strawberry growth. Usually, each strawberry leaves 10-15 leaves. Remove redundant flower buds before flowering. Large fruits retain first and second order flower buds, and medium fruits retain first, second, and third order flower buds. When the axillary buds of the plant occur in large numbers, the axillary buds that occurred in the later period should be removed in time to save nutrients, so as not to affect the development of the fruit.

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