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The best fertilization program

VIEWS: times Release Date:2020-06-24

Mainly talk about two aspects of fruit tree fertilization and field fertilization!

The best fertilization program

One. Fertilization of fruit trees

1. Soil fertilization

Soil fertilization should be applied below the surface layer of the soil, which is conducive to root absorption and can also reduce fertilizer losses. Some chemical fertilizers are volatile; if they are not buried in the soil, the loss is great. If ammonium bicarbonate is scattered on the ground surface, the more drought the soil, the greater the loss. In the ammonium sulfate test, the loss applied to the soil surface is 1 cm, 2 cm, and 3 cm, which is 36%, 52%, and 60% less than the loss applied to the surface of the soil layer. For soil fertilization, the following methods can be used:

Ring-shaped (round) fertilization: according to the size of the canopy, dig a ring-shaped ditch with the trunk as the center, and the radius is the drip line of the tree (the drip line refers to the line where the canopy descends vertically to the ground). The depth of the ditch is distributed according to the root system. However, it is generally 20-30cm deep and 30cm wide. Then put in fertilizer and bury it back in the soil. This situation is usually used when there is less fertilizer or young trees.

Radial ditch (radial) fertilization: ditch from the bottom of the canopy to the outside, the inner end is projected slightly from the outer edge of the canopy, and the outer end extends beyond the projection of the outer edge of the canopy. The number of trenches is 4-8, and the width and depth are determined by the amount of fertilizer. Cover the soil after fertilization. This method of fertilization has fewer root damages and can promote root absorption. It is suitable for adult trees, and trees that are too densely planted are not suitable. When fertilizing the next year, the ditch position should be staggered.

Fertilize the whole garden: Spread the fertilizer in the garden first, mix it with the soil or turn it into the soil. Under the condition of raw grass, just spread the fertilizer on the grass. After the whole garden is fertilized, it is combined with irrigation, and the efficiency is high. This method has a large fertilizing area, which is beneficial to root absorption, and is suitable for adult trees and densely planted trees.

Slotted fertilization method: With the trunk of the tree as the center, draw two parallel lines on the left and right sides of the tree, the distance from the line to the trunk of the tree is the distance from the drip line to the trunk of the tree, each 30 cm deep and wide, and cover with soil after fertilization , Usually used on adult trees.

Disc-shaped ditch fertilization method: Dig 6 to 4 30cm wide pits on a circle with the trunk of the tree as the center and the radius of the drip line, and then spread the fertilizer evenly into the tray, and then cover the soil to fill it. It is often used for fertilizing young trees.

Sprinkle fertilization method: Spread the fertilizer evenly around the tree, and then combine the deep rake in the late autumn and early winter or early spring to turn the fertilizer into the soil. It is suitable for adult trees whose root system has covered the whole garden, but cannot be used for a long time.

2. Fertilization outside the root

Including branch application or spraying, branch injection, and foliar spraying. Foliar spraying is the most commonly used method in production.

Branch painting or spraying: suitable for supplementing trees with iron, zinc and other trace elements, can be combined with white trunk coating in winter, by adding ferrous sulfate or zinc sulfate to the white mortar, the concentration can be higher than that of foliar spraying some. Bark can absorb nutrients, but the efficiency is not high; after rain, the fertilizer on the trunk gradually penetrates into the bark, or it is washed into the soil under the canopy, and then absorbed by the root system.

Branch injection: a high-pressure sprayer can be used with a modified syringe to drill holes in the trunk first, and then the syringe can be injected into the trunk vigorously. It is used to inject ferrous sulfate (1%~4%) and chelated iron (0.05%~0.10%) to prevent and treat iron deficiency. It is also effective to add boric acid and zinc sulfate. All the lack of nutrients are related to the soil conditions. If the effect of fertilizing on the soil is not good, the injection with the trunk is good.

3. Irrigation and fertilization

Fertilization by irrigation is a method of fertilizing trees through irrigation systems (sprinkler irrigation, micro-irrigation, drip irrigation).

Two. Fertilization of field crops

1. Spreading spreads fertilizer evenly in the soil. Spreading can be done deeply, or it can be applied superficially (shallowly). The technique of deep application is to use plough to turn into the lower layer of soil after spreading, and surface application only needs to be raked. Spreading is suitable for dense value crops and large fertilizer application. The advantage of spreading is that it is simple, and nutrients in all parts of the soil are absorbed by the crop; the disadvantage is that the fertilizer utilization rate is not high, because the fertilizer cannot be fully used by the crop, and the weeds are fertilized at the same time. Fixed to reduce fertilizer efficiency, the amount of fertilizer is large.

2. Strip application and hole application The fertilizer is applied to the seeding ditch and the seeding hole, or applied to the transplanting row and hole is called strip application and hole application. Fertilizers can be applied under the seeds or on one or both sides of the seeds.

The following conditions are suitable for strip and hole application:

①Small amount of fertilizer;

② Large crop spacing;

③ Fertilizers that are easily fixed by the soil, such as phosphate fertilizers;

④The crop root system is poorly developed, and the soil fertility is low.

The advantages of this method of fertilization are that the fertilizer is close to the root and is easily absorbed by the crop, so the fertilizer utilization rate is high; the contact surface between the fertilizer and the soil is small, the degree of nutrient elements is fixed is low, and the effective time is longer than the spreading.

3. Mechanical fertilization, also called seed fertilizer simulcast.


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